| 
  • If you are citizen of an European Union member nation, you may not use this service unless you are at least 16 years old.

  • Stop wasting time looking for files and revisions. Connect your Gmail, DriveDropbox, and Slack accounts and in less than 2 minutes, Dokkio will automatically organize all your file attachments. Learn more and claim your free account.

View
 

Behaviorism

Page history last edited by Gayla S. Keesee 9 years, 10 months ago

Think of keywords you could use to research this topic. Try combinations of behaviorism, behaviorists, learning theories, instructional strategies, technology, educational technology, theorists, methods, classroom...  Make sure you reference the information you include so your readers know where it came from and where to look for more info. Refer to the MLA Style for Electronic Sources.

 


Definition:

Focuses attentions on what is observable; such he environment an behavior, rather than what's only available to the individual, like perceptions, thoughts, images and feelings.

 

Behaviorism focus on behaviors that can be observed only. Behaviorism deals with the consequences of behavior and those behaviors can be rewarded or punished. For example,   a reward would consist of some sort of praise like stickers, treats, food, and shopping. Punishment would consist of no play time, extra chores, and taking away items. These are some of the key consequences of behavior. Reward reinforcements can strengthen behaviors or increase the behavior for example, giving praise promotes good behavior. Punishments goal is to decrease the behavior or likelihood of it happening again for example, if the child is acting out the get extra work or no recess.

 

Theory of Reasoned Action and Theory of Planned Behavior 

The theory of reasoned action states that individual performance of a given behavior is primarily determined by a person's intention to perform that behavior. This intention is determined by two major factors: the person's attitude toward the behavior (i.e., beliefs about the outcomes of the behavior and the value of these outcomes) and the influence of the person's social environment or subjective norm (i.e., beliefs about what other people think the person should do, as well as the person's motivation to comply with the opinions of others). The theory of planned behavior adds to the theory of reasoned action the concept of perceived control over the opportunities, resources, and skills necessary to perform a behavior. The concept of perceived behavioral control is similar to the concept of self-efficacy -- person's perception of his or her ability to perform the behavior. Perceived behavioral control over opportunities, resources, and skills necessary to perform a behavior is believed to be a critical aspect of behavior change processes.

I retrieved this information from the following website: (need correct formatting for in-text citation--see my comment below) http://www.csupomona.edu

 

 


Primary Theorists:

Ivan Pavlov: 

(1849 – 1936) Brilliant Russian Psychologist, who laid the foundation for modern learning approaches. Pavlov was a behaviorist. This means he observed behavior. He states that the human mind should be interpreted as a black box that can be opened. In other words what goes in can come out as knowledge. Pavlov studied reflexes. Reflexes are occurring in reaction and responsive. He also studied automatic behavior that is caused by a stimulus from the environment. He studied the studied the concept of classical conditioning. Classical Conditioning is is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by him. (need in-text citation)

 

John B. Watson:

(1878-1958) An American Psychologist whom was an important contributor to classical behaviorism.  Watson proposed the idea of an objective study of behavior known as behaviorism.  Watson saw psychology as the study of people's actions with the ability to predict and control those actions.  This idea became known as the behaviorist theory.  Watson used animals early on in his research and later switched to the study of human behavior and emotions at John Hopkins University.  Watkin's work was based on the experiments of Pavlov and classical conditioning. (need in-text citation)

 

B. F. Skinner

 Negócios e behaviorismo

(1904-1990) An American behaviorist whom developed a system based on operant conditioning.  "Operant Conditioning" is the idea that we behave the way we do because this kind of behavior has had certain consequences in the past.  Skinner stands out in the history of psychology as a great system builder.  His greatest contribution was his description of effects of reinforcement on responses.  Skinner related these findings to individuals as well as social groups. (need in-text citation)


Principles/Underlying Concepts:

The underlying concept when it comes to behaviorism is the learning theory of reinforcement.  By giving students a reward for doing well will keep the students interested in learning. fragment

 

 

 


Classroom Implications:

Arranging the classrooms settings so that the teacher can observe the students behavior against the learning strategy that they have put forth for the students.  Teachers may also want to create self-instructional materials that doesn't require much instruction from them, which is called independent learning.

 

Classroom Management

Using behaviorist theory in the classroom can be rewarding for both students and teachers. Behavioral change occurs for a reason; many students work for things that bring them positive feelings, and for approval from their peers. They may change their behaviors to satisfy the desires they have learned to value. They generally avoid behaviors they associate with unpleasantness and develop habitual behaviors from those that are repeated often (Parkay & Hass, 2000). The entire rationale of behavior modification is that most behavior is learned. If behaviors can be learned, then they can also be unlearned or relearned. Behavior is something that an individual has learned and does repeatedly. When there is a change or interruption in their environment, then there will be a change in the students’ behavior. (need in-text citation)

 

Behaviorist learning theory is not only important in achieving desired behavior in mainstream education; special education teachers have classroom behavior modification plans to implement for their students. These plans assure success for these students in and out of school. (need in-text citation)

 

learning environment set up

choice of instructional strategies

 

technology in the classroom 

Technology has developed in response to man's needs to solve problems and make life easier. Educators believe that the same principle could apply to schools. Integrating technology in the classroom can facilitate learning and address many educational issues.  Schools aim to provide effective educational opportunities for all students. Investing in computer technology at school supports the idea of student centered learning.

Integrating technology in the classroom may be a solution but it is also the problem.  Classrooms have changed in appearance. The learning environment is no longer reflected by frontal teaching where the teacher is actively engaged up front and the student is passively seated. Student performance has replaced frontal lectures. "It is difficult to find a "front" to the classroom because the focus is on learning instead of teaching" (McKenzie, 1998). Teachers are now facilitators and managers who organize the class and delegate work to the students. They are busy finding students meaningful "things to do [which] promote learning" (Cambourne et al, 2001). Organizing and managing a technology enhanced classroom is not easy. Teachers need to be creative with the skills of a manager and technology expert to "guide students to identify, select and use the most appropriate technology tools for all kinds of learning activities" (ETS, 2003).

 

Classrooms with computers or computer rooms need organization and management. Scheduling and rotation are an important aspect of the "wired" (McKenzie, 1998) classroom. Teachers need to plan ahead for student rotation in an efficient way. There are many variables that come into play such as the number of computers available for each student and the effectiveness of the learning activities. Students work at a different pace. Even in a classroom with a computer for each person there is a need to provide work for the fast working students who have finished the task and have spare time. Retrieved from http://www.nelliemuller.com/effectiveclassroommanagementstrategiesfortechnology.htm

(incorrect formatting for citation)


Implications Related to Technology Use:

The technology programs that are used today to help children learn on the computer are programs that helps the child learn by the drill-and- practice method, which uses the reinforcement, practice and feedback. (need in-text citation)


Additional Readings:

Behaviorism. (2010). Tech for Instruction and Assessment Wiki. Retrieved from http://techforinstructionandassessment.wikispaces.com/Behaviorism 

 

Green, D. M. (2009, July 7). Behaviorism and technology in the modern classroom. Retrieved from http://derrickmgreen.wordpress.com/2009/07/07/behaviorism-and-technology-in-the-modern-classroom/

 

Noel, J. (2010, March 10). Behaviorism and Educational Technology: Is it enough? Retrieved from http://sixthgradetechnology.blogspot.com/2010/03/behaviorism-and-educational-technology.html 

 

Standridge, M.. (2002). Behaviorism. In M. Orey (Ed.), Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism 

 

"Burrhua Frederic Skinner."  http://www.funderstanding.com/content/behaviorism  

 

 Standridge, MDepartment of Educational Psychology and Instructional Technology, University of Georgia. Retrieved  http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Behaviorism

 

Bray, B. (2003). Classroom management strategies for computer use: Strategies for organizing and managing a classroom that uses computers. Retrieved January 19, 2005, from http://my-ecoach.com/online/resourcepub.php?resourceid=459

 

Cambourne, B., Labbo, L. D., & Carpenter, M. (2001, November). What do I do with the rest of the class? The nature of teaching-learning activities. Language Arts, 79 (2), 124-136.

 

Center for Improved Engineering and Science Education. (2000). Project management guide overview. Retrieved January 18, 2005, from      http://www.k12science.org/training/projectmgt/index.html

 

Education Technology Services. (2003). Classroom and instructional management: Organization and use. Retrieved January 19, 2005, from http://www.edutech.nodak.edu/ndpcc/classroom/

 

Kasprowicz, T. (2002, May). Managing the classroom with technology. Tech Directions, 61 (10). Retrieved January 14, 2005, from http://xrl.us/epxp

 

McKenzie, J. (1998, March). The wired classroom: Creating technology enhanced student-centered learning environments. From Now On Educational Journal, 7 (6). Retrieved January 18, 2005, from http://www.fno.org/mar98/flotilla.html#anchor279688

 

My eCoach. (2004). eCoach opportunity: Classroom management for technology use. Retrieved January 14, 2005, from http://www.my-ecoach.com/opportunities/z7.html

 

WestEd RTEC. (2002). Classroom management techniques. Retrieved January 14, 2005, from http://www.wested.org/techplan/tk_cms.html

 

Western, M. (2002, July 24). Classroom technology management strategies. Retrieved January 14, 2005, from http://www.janinelim.com/bc/4thur/management.htm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


References:

Davis, Stephen, F., and Joseph J. Palladino, Psychology, Chapter 1 and 5, pages 25 and 178  (need publisher info)

 

Educational Psychology, 11th Ed.,  Woolfork, Annita, ISBN LB1051.W74 2010, pg. 202-3 (need publisher info--not include ISBN #).

 

 

Comments (6)

Deirdre Sisk said

at 7:08 pm on Nov 3, 2010

Behaviorism took place in the 20th century. The perspective of behavior focuses on the role of learning in explaining both normal and abnormal behavior. Abnormal behavior is symptomatic as a result of underlying psychological and behavioral problems from the learning perspective. Behavioral problems are learned just as normal behavior is learned. Behaviorist's believe that we are products of our environmental influences and this shapes and manipulates our behavior.
References:
"Abnormal Psychology In A Changing World", Jeffrey S. Nevid, Spencer A. Rathus and Beverly Greene, Chapter 2, page 52

Gayla S. Keesee said

at 10:00 am on Nov 4, 2010

Deirdre: You should click to edit the page and add the above information directly to the page--not as a comment. Also, your definition should relate behaviorism to education--not abnormal psychology. Your reference should be in APA or MLA format.

Gayla S. Keesee said

at 2:24 pm on Nov 4, 2010

I found bits and pieces of the Pavlov description on two different websites--some verbatim.
http://www.bdrum.com/p130grp5/definitions.htm
http://brainmeta.com/personality/pavlov.php

The summary is a jumble of ideas rather than a succinct explanation of Pavlov's ideas and or influence on education.

Gayla S. Keesee said

at 9:05 am on Nov 5, 2010

Changing only one or two words in a sentence does not make it your own. I found the following at Psychology History http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/watson.htm

"He saw psychology as the study of people's actions with the ability to predict and control those actions. This new idea became known as the behaviorists theory."

Gayla S. Keesee said

at 9:10 am on Nov 5, 2010

Need to consult your textbook--pages 11 and 39-41. What instructional strategies presented in Chapter 2 would be considered as behaviorist oriented?

Smaldino,S., Lowther, D., & Russell, J. (2008). Instructional Technology and Media for Learning (9th Edition). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.

Gayla S. Keesee said

at 8:26 pm on Feb 2, 2011

The Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines require that you cite the quotations, summaries, paraphrases, and other material used from sources within parentheses typically placed at the end of the sentence in which the quoted or paraphrased material appears. These in-text parenthetical citations correspond to the full bibliographic entries found in a list of references at the end of your paper. (Note that the titles of works are italicized, rather than underlined.) See link for examples: http://library.duke.edu/research/citing/within/mla.html

You don't have permission to comment on this page.